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英語語法 名詞正誤辨析

2018-09-10 15:20:20   Tag:

英語學習資料

 
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英語語法 名詞正誤辨析

[誤]Please give me a paper.

[正]Please give me a piece of paper.

[析]不要認為可以數的名詞就是可數名詞,這種原因是對英語中可數與不可數名詞的概念與中文中的能數與不能數相混淆了,所以造成了這樣的錯誤,因paper在英語中是屬于物質名詞一類,是不可數名詞。而不可數名詞要表達數量時,要用與之相關的量詞來表達,如:two pieces of paper.

[誤]Please give me two letter papers.

[正]Please give me two pieces of letter paper.

[析]paper作為紙講是不可數名詞,而作為報紙、考卷、文章講時則是可數名詞,如:Each student should write a paper on what he has learnt.

[誤]My glasses is broken.

[正]My glasses are broken.

[誤]I want to buy two shoes.

[正]I want to buy two pairs of shoes.

[析]英語中glasses—眼鏡,shoes—鞋,trousers—褲子等由兩部分組成的名詞一般要用復數形式。如果要表示一副眼鏡應用a pair of glasses而這時的謂語動詞應與量詞相一致。如:This pair of glasses is very good.

[誤]May I borrow two radioes?

[正]May I borrow two radios?

[析]以o結尾的名詞大都是用加es來表示其復數形式,但如果o前面是一個元音字母或外來語時則只加s就可以了。這樣的詞有zoo—zoos,piano—pianos.

[誤]This is a Mary's dictionary.

[正]This is Mary's dictionary.

[析]如名詞前有指示代詞this, that, these those,及其他修飾詞our,some, every, which, 或所有格時,則不要再加冠詞。

[誤]There are much people in the garden.

[正]There are many people in the garden.

[析]可數名詞前應用many, few, a few, a lot of 來修飾,而people是可數名詞,而且是復數名詞,如:The people are planting trees here.

[誤]I want a few water.

[正]I want a little water.

[析]不可數名詞前可以用a little, little, a lot of, some來修飾,但不可用many,few來修飾。

[誤]Thank you very much. Your family is very kind to me.

[正]Thank you very much. Your family are very kind to me.

[誤]Tom's and Mary's family are waiting for us.

[正]Tom's and Mary's families are waiting for us.

[誤]I'm sorry. I have to go. Tom's families are waiting for me.

[正]I'm sorry. I have to go. Tom's family are waiting for me.

[析]集合名詞如果指某個集合的整體,則應視為單數,如指某個集合體中的個體則應視為復數。如:My family is a big family. When I came in, Tom's family were watching TV. 即湯姆一家人正在看電視。這樣的集合名詞有:family class, team等。

[誤]Don't eat too much meats.

[正]Don't eat too much meat.

[誤]Food in that restaurant is very good.

[正]The food in that restaurant is very good.

[析]物質名詞是不可數名詞,在使用中不可以加s,即它沒有復數形式。也不可加不定冠詞。但如果用于特指某一物質時可以加定冠詞。如:I don't like drinking coffee, but the coffee in that cup is really good.

[誤]Please give me two waters.

[正]Please give me two glasses of water.

[正]Please give me two coffees.

[析]物質名詞如要加計量時,一定要加量詞,如:two cups of tea,two glasses of water,a glass of milk,a loaf of bread,

 a piece of bread,a box of sugar,

a bowl of rice,a bottle of orange,

a bag of earth

例: I'll tell you a piece of good news.

但只有coffee可以用coffees來取代many cups of coffee.

[誤]Can you give me the newspaper of today?

[正]Can you give me today's newspaper?

[析]加's構成所有格的名詞一般應指有生命的人或物。如:Mary's hair,但在英文的習慣用法中對時間、距離等名詞的所有格多用's來構成而不用of結構。如:a five minutes' walk.

[誤]Please make a room for the lady in the school bus.

[正]Please make room for the lady in the school bus.

[析]英語中更多的名詞是含有多種用法和多種含意的,

如: room為可數名詞時為“房間”,如:I live in Room 5.而room為抽象名詞時為空間上面一句話應譯為“請給老婦人在校車上留個地方。”這樣的詞還有:glass 玻璃glasses 眼鏡stone 石頭a stone 一塊石頭time 時間two times 兩次wood 木頭woods 樹林

[誤]There is a flowers garden behind my house.

[正]There is a flower garden behind my house.

[析]名詞除了在句中作主語、賓語、表語外,還可以用來修飾另一個名詞,這時作修飾詞的名詞一般要用單數形式,如:shoe factory (鞋廠),post office(郵局),evening paper (晚報),night school (夜校),head master (校長),a law school (法律學院)。但也有例外,如:a goods train(貨車),sports meeting (運動會)。

[誤]My mother bought two fishes for supper this morning.

[正]My mother bought two fish for supper this morning.

[析]英語中有些名詞單復同形,如:fish, deer, sheep, Chinese (中國人), means (方法)。所以應講one fish, two fish, one Chinese, two Chinese. 如果講There are five fishes in the pool.應譯為池中有五種魚而不是五條魚。

[誤]Mary expressed her thank to her boy friend.

[正]Mary expressed her thanks to her boy friend.

[析]英語中有些名詞只有復數形式,如: thanks, greens, 而有些詞單數形式與復數形式有不同的詞意。如:clothes 為衣服,而cloth則是布, sand沙子,而sands是沙灘。

[誤]I offered my son my congratulation on his success.

[正]I offered my son my congratulations on his success.

[析]英語中表示祝賀的詞雖有單數形式,但一般要用其復數形式。如握手為shake hands.

[誤]We have five German in this meeting.

[正]We have five Germans in this meeting.

[析]英國人Englishman的復數形式為Englishmen,而German 則要加s,因為它不是由國名與man的組合詞。

[誤]There are two As in this word.

[正]There are two A's in this word.

[析]在大寫字母縮寫形式的復數表達法中應加s,但如字母是A、I時,為了防止與As和Is相混,則要用's即A's,I's

[誤]There are three 6s and two 3s in my telephone number.

[正]There are three 6's and two 3's in my telephone number.

[析]在小寫字母與數字的復數形式表達法中要用's

[誤]We have many woman teachers in our school.

[正]We have many women teachers in our school.

[析]一般組合名詞變為復數形式時只將詞中心詞變為復數如:

half brother—half brothers(同父異母或同母異父的兄弟)daughter in law—daughtersin law,(兒媳)但要注意的是:man driver—men drivers(男司機) woman doctor—women doctors(女大夫)grown up—grown ups(成年人) 但是boy student—則變為boy students

[誤]Physics are very difficult to learn.

[正]Physics is very difficult to learn.

[析]雖以s結尾但只能用作單數名詞有:科學,學科名字:Physics. Mathematics politics游戲名稱:bowls 專有名稱:Niagara Falls(尼亞加拉瀑布)  其他名詞:news(消息,新聞)

[誤]There is a people in the room.

[正]There is a person in the room.

[正]There is a man in the room.

[析]people是復數名詞,不可用作單數,如要用來講一個人時應用a person, a man, a woman。同樣的詞有police.要講一個警察時則要用a policeman, a policewoman。

[誤]Where is my shoe?

[正]Where are my shoes?

[析]常常只用作復數形式的詞有trousers, pants, shorts(短褲),socks(襪子),shoes, gloves(手套)。但如果只找其中的一個則要指明,這時還是應用單數形式。如:Where's my left glove?(我左手的手套在哪?)

[誤]I paid five pennies for the sweet.

[正]I paid five pence for the sweet.

[析]英語中便士有兩個復數形式pence用來表達一定數量的錢。而pennies是指一個個的硬幣,如:I want to change this note for pennies.我想把這紙幣換成硬幣。(即一便士一個的硬幣)。

[誤]There are many fruit in the shop.

[正]There are many fruits in the shop.

[析]物質名詞為不可數名詞,但是用來表示種類時則可以用作可數名詞,這里應譯為各種各樣的水果。

[誤]There is a new car. It is Jone's and Mary's.

[正]There is a new car. It is Jone and Mary's.

[析]有生命名詞的所有格,如果是單數名詞則加's如:Mary's car.如果是以s結尾的復數名詞則只在s后面加’如:teachers' offices.如果是復數名詞但不是以s結尾,則只加’s,如:children's palace 組合名詞的所有格是在最后一個詞尾加's如:girl friend —girl friend's someone else—someone else's a week or three—a week or three's如名詞后有同位語時,則應加在同位語的詞尾上,如:It is my girl friend, Mary's car.要注意的是當兩個名詞并列時,如表示歸兩人共同所有,則在最后一個名詞后面加's,如果表示分別所有則在兩個名詞后分別加's,如:This is Mary and Jone's home.即Mary與Jone是一家人。這是他們共同的家。而These are Mary's and Jone's homes.則應譯為這里是Mary的家與Jone 的家。

[誤]It is really beautiful. It is a work of nature.

[正]It is really beautiful. It is a Nature's work.

[析]無生命名詞的所有格應用of結構。但是's形式的所有格可用于以下無生命的名詞:表示時間的詞:today's newspaper, a twenty minutes' walk, an hour's, rest 表示長度的詞:three metres' distance, a boat's length, twenty miles' journey 表示重量的名詞:two pounds' weight價格名詞:two dollars'worth擬人化的名詞:Nature's work, nature's  lesson(大自然的教訓)及國家、機關、團體、城市等機構性名詞:the university's library

 

[誤]He is an old friend of my father.

[正]He is an old friend of my father's.

[析]這是英語中的一種習慣用法而不要根據語法去推理。如:This pen is Tom's.

[誤]My father is a good cooker.

[正]My father is a good cook.

[析]一般動詞加上er后則轉意為執行該動作的執行者,如:teach(教)—teacher(老師),think(想)—thinker(思想家),drive(開車)—driver(司機),sell(賣)—seller(賣物者)……但不能總是以此類推,比如cook是動詞“做飯”。而cook也可作為名詞“廚師”講,而cooker則為廚具,餐具,即鍋、碗、勺等做飯用具。

[誤]The young is dancing there.

[正]The young are dancing there.

[析]英文中用定冠詞加上形容詞表示一類人時應按復數名詞,如:the rich 富人,the poor(窮人),the wise 聰明人,但如果用定冠詞加形容詞來表示事物則要用作單數名詞,如:The beautiful is still here.美麗的風景依舊。

[誤]The stories of the book was written many years ago.

[正]The stories of the book were written many years ago.

[析]這句話的真正主語應是stories,所以應用復數謂語動詞。

[誤]This is one of the EnglishChinese dictionary.

[正]This is one of the EnglishChinese dictionaries.

[析]one of意為“……之一”,of后面的名詞要用復數形式。

[誤]Let's go to uncle Wang for supper.

[正]Let's go to uncle Wang's for supper.

[析]uncle Wang's 意為“王叔叔家”,doctor's意為“醫院或私人診所”。

[誤]I think we will make a friend with each other.

[正]I think we will make friends with each other.

[析]make friends 為習慣用法,即交朋友。

[誤]I want to tell you much pieces of good news.

[正]I want to tell you many pieces of good news.

[析]news為不可數名詞,但加了量詞之后則要用many來修飾量詞,因量詞是可數名詞,或可以說I want to tell you some good news.因some 即可用在可數名詞前,也可用在不可數名詞前作形容詞,如:I want to tell you some pieces of good news.

[誤]The teacher with five students are coming here.

[正]The teacher with five students is coming here.

[析]要注意由with引出的介詞短語不是本句的主語,這與連詞and有很大的區別,如:The teacher and five students are coming here. 這里由介詞引出的短語僅僅是teacher的修飾語。

[誤]There are a lot of information here, but we don't need them.

[正]There is a lot of information here, but we don't need it.

[析]information為不可數名詞,而用作代替它的詞要用it而不能用them.

[誤]Many a student make the same mistake in the exam.

[正]Many a student makes the same mistake in the exam.

[析]many a 加可數名詞單數,作主語時其謂語動詞應用單數形式,但其意為許多學生。

[誤]The children wear very good cloth to go to school today.

[正]The children wear very good clothes to go to school today.

[析]英文中cloth,clothes,clothing是易混之詞:cloth是物質名詞,意為“布”,沒有復數形式,而clothing是指衣物的總稱,也沒有復數形式。clothes是指衣服,但沒有單數形式,如:This clothing is needed in warm countries. Her clothes are made of fine cloth.英文中的dress則指較正規的服裝,如:a school dress 校服,an evening dress晚禮服。

[誤]I like to study the English.

[正]I like to study English.

[析]作為一種學科名詞前不要用冠詞,而作為某一特指學科則要加冠詞,如:I like to study history. I like to study the history ofAmerica.

[誤]The Browns is going to visit China.

[正]The Browns are going to visit China.

[析]定冠詞加姓加s,則意為“Brown先生一家人”。所以應用復數謂語動詞。此句應譯為:Brown先生一家將要訪問中國。


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